General Studies-I

(Indian Heritage and Culture, History and Geography of the World and Society)

  • Indian Culture – Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.
Indian Heritage & Culture
Indian Art Forms

Indian Paintings

Classical Dance Forms

Folk Dance Forms

Classical Music




Martial Arts


Ancient Indian Literature

Classical Sanskrit Literature

Literature in Pali and Prakrit

Early Dravidian Literature

Medieval Literature

Women Poets of Bhakti

Trends in Medieval Literature

Modern Indian Literature


Harappan Architecture

Temple Architecture

Cave Architecture

Indo-Islamic Architecture

Medieval Architecture

Modern Architecture

Contribution of Buddhism & Jainism to the Development of Indian Architecture

Rock Cut Architecture

Colonial Architecture & the Modern Period

  • Modern Indian History from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present- significant events, personalities, issues.
Modern Indian History
Middle of the Eighteenth Century Until The Present

*  Socio-economic Condition of People

*  European Penetration of India

*  British Conquest of India

*  British Policies & Their Impact – Economic, Administrative & Socio-cultural

*  Socio-cultural Reform Movements

*  Uprisings Against British Pre-1857

  • The Freedom Struggle — its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country.
The Freedom Struggle
Revolt of 1857

Growth of Nationalism in India (1858-1905)

*  Political, Economic & Administrative Unification of the Country

*  Role of Western Education

*  Role of Press

*  Rediscovery of India’s Past

*  Early Political Movements

*  Formation of INC

*  Era of Moderates

Growth of Militant Nationalism & Revolutionary Activities (1905-1918)

*  Swadeshi & Boycott Movement

*  Surat Split

*  International Influence

*  Morley – Minto Reforms

*  Growth of Communalism

Beginning of Mass Nationalism (1919-1939)

*  Mahatma Gandhi – His Ideas & Leadership

*  Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms

*  Rowlatt Act, Satyagrah and Jallianwala Bagh Massacre

*  Non-cooperation & Khilafat Movement

*  Swarajists & No-Changers

*  Emergence of New Forces – Socialistic Ideas, Youth & Trade Unionism

*  Revolutionary Activity

*  Simon Commission & Nehru Report

*  Civil Disobedience Movement

*  Round Table Conferences

*  Communal Award & Poona Pact

*  Participation in Elections to Central Legislature (1934) & Provincial Assemblies (1937)

*  Government of India Act, 1935

Towards Freedom & Partition (1939-1947)

*  National Movement During World War II

*  August Offer

*  Individual Satyagraha

*  Growth of Communalism

*  Peasant Movements

*  State People’s Struggle

*  Cripps Mission

*  Quit India Movement

*  Wavell Plan

*  INA & Subhash Chandra Bose

*  Cabinet Mission

*  Nationalist Upsurge Post-World War II

*  Independence with Partition

  • Post-independence Consolidation and Reorganization within the country.
Post-independence Consolidation
Nation Building

*  Partition and Its Aftermath

*  Integration of Princely States

*  Reorganisation of States

*  Issue of Official Language

*  Tribal Consolidation

*  Regional Aspirations

Foreign Policy

*  Non-Aligned Movement

*  Panchsheel

*  Wars with Pakistan & China

*  Nuclear Policy


*  Planned Development

*  Green Revolution, Operation Flood & Cooperatives

*  Agrarian & Land Reforms

*  Industrial Reforms

*  LPG Reforms


*  Era of One-Party Dominance

*  Emergence of Opposition Parties

*  Emergency: Crisis of Democratic Order

*  Rise of Regional Parties

*  Coalition Era


*  Popular Movements

*  Communalism

*  Indian Women Since Independence

*  Naxalism

  • History of the World will include events from 18th century such as Industrial Revolution, world wars, Redrawal of National Boundaries, Colonization, Decolonization, political philosophies like Communism, Capitalism, Socialism etc.— their forms and effect on the society.
History of the World
Industrial Revolution

*  Renaissance

*  Discovery of Sea Routes

*  Reformation

*  Counter Reformation

*  European Nations Settle North America

*  Rise of Slave Trade

*  American War of Independence

*  French Revolution

*  Nationalism in Europe

*  Rise of Capitalism, Colonialism & Imperialism

World War I

*  Causes of the War

*  Scope & Course of the War

*  Russian Revolution

*  End of the War & Peace Treaties

*  Consequences of the War

*  League of Nations

World Between the Two Wars

*  Europe After the War – Fascism & Nazism

*  The Great Depression

*  Emergence of Soviet Union

*  Nationalist Movements in Asia & Africa

*  US as a Strong Power

World War II

*  Fascist Aggression & Response of Western Democracies

*  Outbreak of the War

*  Theatres of the War

*  US Entry into the War

*  Global Nature of the War

*  The Holocaust

*  Resistance Movements

*  After-effects of the War

Decolonialisation & Redrawal of National Boundaries

*  Europe after World War II

*  Cold War

*  Rise of Asia & Africa

*  Developments in West Asia & North Africa

*  Spread of Communism

*  Korean War

*  Vietnam War

*  Cuban Crisis

*  Collapse of Soviet Union

Concept, Types & Social Impact of Political Philosophies

*  Communism

*  Capitalism

*  Socialism

  • Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India.
Salient Features of Indian Society
*  Diversity (Types – caste, linguistic, social and religious, race, tribe and ethnicity, culture)

*  Challenges posed by Diversity

*  Unity

*  Pluralism

*  Unity in Diversity

*  Inequality and Exclusion

*  Family System

*  Examples of above.

  • Role of Women and Women’s Organization, Population and Associated Issues, Poverty and Developmental issues, Urbanization, their problems and their remedies.
Role of Women and Women’s Organization
*  Women’s Organisations – Empowerment through Action

*  19th Century Social Reform Movements and Early Women’s Organisations – (1) Agrarian Struggles and Revolt, (2) Participation in Freedom Struggle

*  Women’s Organisations Post – 1947

*  Resurgence of Women’s Movement in the 70s: (1) Emergence of New Organisations, (2) Approaches and Issues

*  Contemporary Women’s Issues & Organisation Response

*  Women’s Organisations and SHGs

*  Challenges faced by Women’s Organisations


Population and Associated Issues
*  Basic Demography of India

*  Population Trends in India and their Implications

*  Causes and Effects of Over Population

* Challenges of Population Explosion

*  Changing Age Structure of Indian Population

*  Demogarphic Dividend: Boon or Bane for India

*  Population Aging in India

*  India’s Population Policy & Initiatives


Poverty and Developmental Issues
✔ Concept of Development and Poverty

✔ Types of Poverty

✔ Measurement of Poverty – Poverty Line

✔ Causes of Poverty

✔ Poverty as a Social Problem

✔ Socio-economic Spread of Poverty

✔ Consequences of Poverty –

o    Inequality

o    Continuation of Vicious Cycle

o    Who are worst affected by poverty?

✔ Problem of Rising Urban Poverty

✔ Poverty Alleviation Initiatives

✔ Policy shift from “Trickle Down” Economics to Inclusive or Pro-poor Development to Reduce Poverty

✔ Relation between Poverty Reduction and Development: Poverty-Inequality-Development Nexus


✔ Urbanisation Trends in India and Their Implications – Demographic and Social Dimensions

✔ Factors Driving Urbanisation

✔ State of Service Delivery and Challeges posed by Urbanisation

✔ Problems of Urban Areas

✔ Social Consequences of Urbanisation

✔ Impact of Urbanisation in Rural Areas

✔ Urban Planning and Role of Urban Local Bodies (ULBs)

✔ Reforms Required and Government Initiatives Taken So Far

✔ Problems of Slums

  • Effects of Globalization on Indian society.
Effects of Globalization on Indian Society
✔ Understanding Globalisation – Its Different Dimensions

✔ Globalisation & Culture – Homogenisation vs. Glocalisation

✔ Factors Driving Globalisation

✔ Globalisation & India

✔ Impact of Globalisation on India – Socio-cultural, economic, on women, agrarian sector etc.

✔ Does Globalisation cause Poverty?

  • Social Empowerment, Communalism, Regionalism & Secularism.
Social Empowerment
✔ Which are the Socially Disadvantaged Groups?

✔ Dimensions of Social Empowerment

✔ Government Initiatives to Aide Social Empowerment


✔ Communalism – Its Characteristics

✔ Communalism in India in the Past

✔ Communalism in Contemporqary India

✔ Causes of Communalism

✔ Consequences of Communalism

✔ Measures to Control & Eradicate Communalism

✔ Secularism as an Antidote to Communalism


✔ Concept of Region & Regionalism

✔ Different Forms of Regionalism

✔ Regionalism in India

✔ Causes of Regionalism

✔ Concept of ‘Sons of Soil’

✔ Consequences of Regionalism

✔ Federalism & Regionalism

✔ Role of Regional Parties

✔ Measures to Contain Regionalism

✔ Regionalism in the International Sphere


✔ Concept of Secularism

✔ Indian Model of Secularism

✔ Secularism in India

✔ Nature & Practice of Secularism in India

✔ Uniform Civil Code

✔ Challenges faced by Secularism in India

✔ Measures to Make India Truly Secular

  • Salient features of World’s Physical Geography.
Salient Features of World’s Physical Geography

✔ Origin & Evolution of Earth

✔ Interior of the Earth

✔ Distribution of Continents & Oceans

✔ Plate Tectonic Theory

✔ Distribution of Earthquakes & Volcanoes

✔ Rocks & Rock Cycle

✔ Geomorphic Processes – Endogenic & Exogenic

✔ Landforms & their Evolution


✔ Hydrological Cycle

✔ Seafloor Spreading

✔ Ocean Floor Configuration

✔ Temperature & Salinity of Oceans

✔ Movement of Oceans – Waves, Tides, Currents


✔ Earth’s Atmosphere – Composition & Structure

✔ Solar Radiation, Heat Budget & Temperature

✔ Atmospheric Circulation & Weather Systems

✔ World Climate (examples)

Soil Geography

✔ Soil & Soil Contents

✔ Process of Soil Formation

✔ Soil Forming Factors

✔ Types of Soils (examples)

✔ Soil Erosion & Conservation

  • Distribution of Key Natural Resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent); factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India).
Distribution of Key Natural Resources Across the World
Types of Resources

✔ On the Basis of Origin, Ownership, Exhaustability etc.

Land Resources

✔ Land Utilisation

✔ Land Use Pattern

✔ Land Degradation & Conservation

Forest Resources

✔ Types & Distribution – Grasslands, Forests etc.

✔ Causes of Depletion

✔ Conservation of Forests

Water Resources

✔ Marine & Freshwater

✔ Water Scarcity & Need For Conservation

✔ Integrated Water Resources Management

Agricultural Resources

✔ Types of Farming

✔ Cropping Patterns

✔ Contribution to Economy, Employment & Output

✔ Food Security

Mineral & Energy Resources

✔ Classification of Minerals – Ferrous & Non-Ferrous

✔ Occurrence of Minerals

✔ Conservation of Minerals

✔ Classification of Energy Resources – Conventional & Non-Conventional

✔ Occurrence of Energy Resources

✔ Conservation of Energy Resources


Factors Responsible for the Location of Industries
Classification of Industries

Location & Distribution of the Industries on the Basis of

*  Raw Material

*  Labour

*  Market

*  Capital

*  Land

*  Grants & Financial Incentives

*  Power

*  Transport

*  Water

*  Communication

Distribution of Major Industries – Iron & Steel, IT, Cotton Textile

Agglomeration & Footloose Industries

  • Important Geophysical Phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone etc., geographical features and their location-changes in critical geographical features (including water-bodies and ice-caps) and in flora and fauna and the effects of such changes.
Important Geophysical Phenomena

*  Why Does Earth Shake?

*  Earthquake Waves

*  Shadow Zone

*  Types of Earthquake

*  Measuring Earthquake

*  Effects of Earthquake


*  What Causes Tsunami

*  Effect of Tsunami

*  Mitigating the Impact of Tsunami


*  Types of Volcanoes

*  What Causes Volcanoes?

*  Volcanic Landforms


*  Tropical Cyclones

*  Anti-Cyclone

*  Extra Tropical Cyclones


Geographical Features and their Location
*  Factors Causing Changes in Critical Geographical Features

*  Examples of Changing Geographicl Features – Mealting of Ice Sheets, Desertification etc.

*  Impact of Changing Geographical Features