(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management).
- Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.
|Indian Economy & Issues Relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development & Employment|
§ Meaning of Planning
§ Need for Planning in Economic Development
§ Imperative Vs. Indicative Vs. Structural Planning
§ Objectives of Planning
§ Indian Planning History
§ Techniques of Indian Planning
§ Achievements & Failures of Indian Planning
§ Shortcomings of Planning in India
§ NITI Aayog Vs. Planning Commission
Mobilisation of Resources
§ Types of Resources – Financial, Human, Natural etc.
§ Need for Resource Mobilisation
§ Role of Savings & Investment
§ Government Resources – Tax & Non-Tax ( or Fiscal & Monetary Policy)
§ Banking Sector & NBFCs
§ Capital Market
§ External Sources – FDI, ODA etc.
§ Public Borrowing & Management of Public Debt
§ Challenges in Mobilising Resources for Development
§ Steps That Can Be Taken
Growth & Development
§ Meaning of Development & Growth
§ Difference between Development & Growth
|§ Determinants of Growth & Development
§ Importance & Limitations of Economic Growth
§ Jobless Growth
§ Pro-Poor Growth
§ Balanced & Unbalanced Growth
§ Dimensions of Development
§ Measurement & Indicators of Development
§ Approaches to Development:
o Market-Based Approach
o Role of State and Planned Approach
o Mixed Economy Approach
§ Challenges to Development & Growth
§ Nature – Rural vs. Urban, Formal Vs. Informal
§ Terms Related to Employment – Labour Force Participation Rate, Employment Rate, Working Age Population etc.
§ Sectoral Distribution of Employment
§ Quality of Employment
§ Causes of Lack of Employment
§ Restructuring of Workforce
§ Government Initiatives for Generating Employment
- Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.
|Inclusive Growth & Issues Arising From It|
|§ What is Inclusive Growth?
§ Elements of Inclusive Growth
§ Need for Inclusive Growth
|§ Indicators of Inclusive Growth
§ Challenges in Achieveing Inclusive Growth in India
§ 12th FYP & Inclusive Growth
- Government Budgeting.
|Need for Government Budgeting
Components of the Government Budget
§ Revenue Account – Revenue Receipts & Revenue Expenditure
§ Capital Account – Capital Receipts & Capital Expenditure
Changes in Budgetary Process in 2017
Measures of Government Deficit
§ Revenue Deficit
|§ Fiscal Deficit
§ Primary Deficit
Other Types of Budgets – Outcome, Zero-Based, etc.
Agriculture and Allied Sectors
- Major Crops – Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country, – Different Types of Irrigation and Irrigation Systems; Storage, Transport and Marketing of Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints; E-technology in the aid of farmers.
- Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices; Public Distribution System – Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping; Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security; Technology Missions; Economics of Animal-Rearing.
- Food Processing and Related Industries in India- Scope’ and Significance, Location, Upstream and Downstream Requirements, Supply Chain Management.
|Major Crops Cropping Patterns in Various Parts of the Country|
|§ Importance of Cropping Pattern
§ Types of Cropping Pattern
§ Reasons Why Cropping Pattern Differ
|§ Factors Influencing Cropping Pattern
§ Emerging Trends in Cropping Pattern
§ Long-Run Effects of Current Trends in Cropping Pattern
|Different Types of Irrigation & Irrigation Systems Storage|
|§ Modes of Irrigation
§ Sources of Irrigation
§ Choosing an Irrigation System
§ Problems Associated with Irrigation
|§ Progress of Irrigation Under Five Year Plans
§ Environmental Effects of Irrigation
§ Need for Systemic Irrigation Reforms
§ Need for a National Water Policy
|Transport & Marketing of Agricultural Produce & Issues & Related Constraints|
|§ Process of Agricultural Marketing – Marketing Channels, Functionaries, Costs, etc.
§ Role of FCI
§ Regulated Markets
§ Cooperative Marketing
§ Shortcomings of Current Agricultural Marketing Process
§ National Agricultutral Market (NAM)
§ Farmer Producer Organisations (FPO)
§ Contract Farming
§ Futures Trading in Agricultural Commodities
|E-Technology in the Aid of Farmers, Technology Missions|
|Issues Related to Direct & Indirect Farm Subsidies & Minimum Support Prices|
|§ Agricultural Pricing Policy
§ Rationale for Subsidies
§ Types of Subsidies
|§ Effectiveness, Extent & Problems of Subsisies
§ Clash with WTO Agreements
|Public Distribution System Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping|
§ Functioning – Fair Price Shops, FCI, Ration Cards, Aadhar Linking, etc.
§ Shortcomings or Problems Associated with PDS
|§ Need to Improve the Working of PDS
§ Measures to Improve the Loopholes & Lacunaes Associated with PDS
§ Steps Taken by Governement in this Regard
|Issues of Buffer Stocks & Food Security|
|§ Buffer Stock – Objectives & Norms in India
§ Impact of Government Procurement & Distribution
|§ Need for Food Security
§ NFSM And othe Food Security Realted Government Initiatives
|Economics of Animal-Rearing|
|Food Processing & Related Industries in India|
|§ Scope & Potential in India
§ Constraints and Challenges
|§ Upstream & Downstream Requirements
§ Supply Chain Management
§ Government Policies and Initiatives – SAMPADA, 12th FYP, etc.
- Land Reforms in India.
|Land Reforms in India|
|§ Rationale for Land Reforms
§ Components of Land Reforms
§ Impact of Land Reforms
§ Problems in Implementaion of Land Reforms
|§ Success of Land Reforms
§ Recent Initiatives – Land Leasing, Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation & Resettlement Act, etc.
- Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.
|Effects of Liberalization on the Economy|
|Phase of Liberalisation||§ Impact on Different Sectors of the Economy|
- Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
- Investment Models.
|Need for Investment
Sources of Investment
Types of Investment Models
§ Domestic Investment Models
o Public Investment Model
o Private Investment Model
o Public Private Participation Investment Model
|§ Foreign Investment Models:
o FII, etc.
§ Sector Specific Investment Models
§ Cluster Based Investment Models
Investment Models Followed by India
Science and Technology
- Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.
- Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology.
- Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Bio-technology and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights.
|Developments & their Applications & Effects in Everyday Life|
|Chemicals in Food
§ Artificial Sweetening Agents
§ Food Preservatives
§ Neurologically Active Drugs
o Antiseptic and Disinfectant
|§ Anti-Fertility Drugs, etc.
§ Synthetic detergents
Microwave Oven, etc.
|Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology|
|§ Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman
§ Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose
§ Satyendra Nath Bose
§ Meghnad Saha
§ Homi Jehangir Bhabha
§ Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar
|§ A.P.J. Abdul Kalam
§ Vikram Sarabhai
§ Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya
§ Har Gobind Khorana
§ Tessy Thomas
§ C.N.R. Rao
|Indigenization of Technology & Developing New Technology|
|§ IT & Computers
|Awareness in Different Fields|
|§ IT & Computers
|Issues Relating to Intellectual Property Rights|
|§ Need for Intellectual Property Rights
§ Types of IPR
§ IPR Regime in India
|§ International Agreements Related to IPRs
§ Geographical Indicators
§ Recent Issues – Evergreening, Compuslory Licensing, Prominent Cases etc.
Environment and Biodiversity
- Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.
|What is Biodiversity?
Types of Biodiversity – Genetic, Species, Ecosystem, etc.
Importance of Biodivesirty – Ecosystem Services, Bio Resources of Economic Importance, Social Benefits etc.
Resasons for Loss of Biodiversity
§ In-situ & Ex-Situ
§ Eco-Sensitive Areas
§ Ecological Hotspots
§ National Guidelines, Legislations & Other Programmes.
§ International Agreements & Groupings
|Environmental Pollution & Degradation|
|Types of Pollution & Pollutants
Impact of Pollution & Degradation
§ Ozone Layer Depletion and Ozone Hole
§ Greenhouse Gas Effect & Global Warming
§ Acid Rain
§ Hazardous Waste, etc.
|Causes/Sources of Pollution & Degradation
Prevention & Control of Pollution & Degradation
National Environment Agencies, Legislations and Policies
International Environment Agencies & Agreements
|Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)|
|§ What is EIA?
§ Indian Guidelines & Legislations
§ EIA Process
|§ Need & Benefits of EIA
§ Shortcomings of EIA in India
§ Measures to Make EIA Effective
- Disaster and Disaster Management.
|§ Types of Disasters
§ Management of Disasters
|§ Community Level Disaster Management
§ Governement Initiatives on Disaster Management
- Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.
- Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
- Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges, Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
- Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas – Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.
- Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate.
|Linkages Between Development & Spread of Extremism|
|§ Factors Responsible for Spread of Extremism
§ Steps that State can Taken to Reduce the Spread of Extremism due to Underdevelopment
|Role of External State & Non-State Actors in Creating Challenges to Internal Security|
|Threats from Non-State Actors
§ J&K Separatism
§ Left Wing Extremism
§ North East Insurgency
§ Terrorism in Hinterland & Border Areas
§ Right Wing Terrorism
Reasons for Spread of Terrorism
State Sponsored Terrorism
|Institutional Framework to Tackle Challenge of Internal Security
|Challenges to Internal Security Through Communication Networks|
|§ Role of Media & Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges
§ Challenges in Managing Social Media
|· Steps That can be Taken|
|Basics of Cyber Security|
|§ Cyber Security
§ Threats to Indian Cyber Security
§ Steps taken by India
|§ International Cooperation on Cyber Security
§ Cyber Warfare
§ Terms Associated with Cyber Security
|Money-Laundering & its Prevention|
|§ Process of Money Laundering
§ Impact of Money Laundering
§ Challenges to Tackle Money Laundering
|§ Steps to Counter Money Laundering
§ Terms Related To Money Laundering
|Security Challenges & their Management in Border Areas|
|§ Challenges in Managing Border Security – Coastal & Terrestrial
§ Land Boundary Disputes with Neighbours
|§ India’s Policy in Border Area Security Management|
|Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism|
|§ Types of Organised Crime
§ Challenges in Controlling Organised Crime
|§ Indian Context – Link between Organised Crime & Terrorism|
|Various Security Forces & Agencies & Their Mandate|
|§ Central Armed Police Forces
§ Central Paramilitary Forces
|§ Security & Intelligence Agencies – IB. R&WA, etc.|