General Studies-III

(Technology, Economic Development, Bio-diversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management).

  •  Indian Economy and issues relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development and Employment.
Indian Economy & Issues Relating to Planning, Mobilization of Resources, Growth, Development & Employment

§  Meaning of Planning

§  Need for Planning in Economic Development

§  Imperative Vs. Indicative Vs. Structural Planning

§  Objectives of Planning

§  Indian Planning History

§  Techniques of Indian Planning

§  Achievements & Failures of Indian Planning

§  Shortcomings of Planning in India

§  NITI Aayog Vs. Planning Commission

Mobilisation of Resources

§  Types of Resources – Financial, Human, Natural etc.

§  Need for Resource Mobilisation

§  Role of Savings & Investment

§  Government Resources – Tax & Non-Tax ( or Fiscal & Monetary Policy)

§  Banking Sector & NBFCs

§  Capital Market

§  External Sources – FDI, ODA etc.

§  Public Borrowing & Management of Public Debt

§  Challenges in Mobilising Resources for Development

§  Steps That Can Be Taken

Growth & Development

§  Meaning of Development & Growth

§  Difference between Development & Growth

§  Determinants of Growth & Development

§  Importance & Limitations of Economic Growth

§  Jobless Growth

§  Pro-Poor Growth

§  Balanced & Unbalanced Growth

§  Dimensions of Development

§  Measurement & Indicators of Development

§  Approaches to Development:

o    Market-Based Approach

o    Role of State and Planned Approach

o    Mixed Economy Approach

§  Challenges to Development & Growth


§  Nature – Rural vs. Urban, Formal Vs. Informal

§  Terms Related to Employment – Labour Force Participation Rate, Employment Rate, Working Age Population etc.

§  Sectoral Distribution of Employment

§  Quality of Employment

§  Causes of Lack of Employment

§  Restructuring of Workforce

§  Government Initiatives for Generating Employment

  • Inclusive Growth and issues arising from it.
Inclusive Growth & Issues Arising From It
§  What is Inclusive Growth?

§  Elements of Inclusive Growth

§  Need for Inclusive Growth

§  Indicators of Inclusive Growth

§  Challenges in Achieveing Inclusive Growth in India

§  12th FYP & Inclusive Growth

  • Government Budgeting.
Government Budgeting
Need for Government Budgeting

Components of the Government Budget

§  Revenue Account – Revenue Receipts & Revenue Expenditure

§  Capital Account – Capital Receipts & Capital Expenditure

Changes in Budgetary Process in 2017

Measures of Government Deficit

§  Revenue Deficit

§  Fiscal Deficit

§  Primary Deficit

Fiscal Policy

Deficit Reduction


Other Types of Budgets – Outcome, Zero-Based, etc.

Agriculture and Allied Sectors

  • Major Crops – Cropping Patterns in various parts of the country, – Different Types of Irrigation and Irrigation Systems; Storage, Transport and Marketing of Agricultural Produce and Issues and Related Constraints; E-technology in the aid of farmers.
  • Issues related to Direct and Indirect Farm Subsidies and Minimum Support Prices; Public Distribution System – Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping; Issues of Buffer Stocks and Food Security; Technology Missions; Economics of Animal-Rearing.
  • Food Processing and Related Industries in India- Scope’ and Significance, Location, Upstream and Downstream Requirements, Supply Chain Management.
Major Crops Cropping Patterns in Various Parts of the Country
§  Importance of Cropping Pattern

§  Types of Cropping Pattern

§  Reasons Why Cropping Pattern Differ

§  Factors Influencing Cropping Pattern

§  Emerging Trends in Cropping Pattern

§  Long-Run Effects of Current Trends in Cropping Pattern


Different Types of Irrigation & Irrigation Systems Storage
§  Modes of Irrigation

§  Sources of Irrigation

§  Choosing an Irrigation System

§  Problems Associated with Irrigation

§  Progress of Irrigation Under Five Year Plans

§  Environmental Effects of Irrigation

§  Need for Systemic Irrigation Reforms

§  Need for a National Water Policy


Transport & Marketing of Agricultural Produce & Issues & Related Constraints
§  Process of Agricultural Marketing – Marketing Channels, Functionaries, Costs, etc.

§  Role of FCI

§  Regulated Markets

§  Warehousing

§  Cooperative Marketing

§  Shortcomings of Current Agricultural Marketing Process

§  APMCs

§  National Agricultutral Market (NAM)

§  Farmer Producer Organisations (FPO)

§  Contract Farming

§  Futures Trading in Agricultural Commodities


E-Technology in the Aid of Farmers, Technology Missions


Issues Related to Direct & Indirect Farm Subsidies & Minimum Support Prices
§  Agricultural Pricing Policy

§  Rationale for Subsidies

§  Types of Subsidies

§  Effectiveness, Extent & Problems of Subsisies

§  Clash with WTO Agreements


Public Distribution System Objectives, Functioning, Limitations, Revamping
§  Objectices/Significance

§  Functioning – Fair Price Shops, FCI, Ration Cards, Aadhar Linking, etc.

§  Shortcomings or Problems Associated with PDS

§  Need to Improve the Working of PDS

§  Measures to Improve the Loopholes & Lacunaes Associated with PDS

§  Steps Taken by Governement in this Regard


Issues of Buffer Stocks & Food Security
§  Buffer Stock – Objectives & Norms in India

§  Impact of Government Procurement & Distribution

§  Need for Food Security

§  NFSM And othe Food Security Realted Government Initiatives


Economics of Animal-Rearing


Food Processing & Related Industries in India
§  Scope & Potential in India

§  Significance

§  Location

§  Constraints and Challenges

§  Upstream & Downstream Requirements

§  Supply Chain Management

§  Government Policies and Initiatives – SAMPADA, 12th FYP, etc.

  • Land Reforms in India.
Land Reforms in India
§  Rationale for Land Reforms

§  Components of Land Reforms

§  Impact of Land Reforms

§  Problems in Implementaion of Land Reforms

§  Success of Land Reforms

§  Recent Initiatives – Land Leasing, Land Acquisition, Rehabilitation & Resettlement Act, etc.

  • Effects of Liberalization on the Economy, Changes in Industrial Policy and their Effects on Industrial Growth.
Effects of Liberalization on the Economy
Phase of Liberalisation §  Impact on Different Sectors of the Economy
  • Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways etc.
§  Energy

§  Ports

§  Roads

§  Airports

§  Railways

  • Investment Models.
Investment Models
Need for Investment

Sources of Investment

Types of Investment Models

§  Domestic Investment Models

o    Public Investment Model

o    Private Investment Model

o    Public Private Participation Investment Model

§  Foreign Investment Models:

o    FDI

o    FII, etc.

§  Sector Specific Investment Models

§  Cluster Based Investment Models

Investment Models Followed by India

Science and Technology

  • Science and Technology- Developments and their Applications and Effects in Everyday Life.
  • Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology; Indigenization of Technology and Developing New Technology.
  • Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Bio-technology and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights.
Developments & their Applications & Effects in Everyday Life
Chemicals in Food

§  Artificial Sweetening Agents

§  Food Preservatives


§  Antacid

§  Antihistamines

§  Neurologically Active Drugs

o    Tranquilizers

o    Analgesics

§  Antimicrobials

o    Antibiotics

o    Antiseptic and Disinfectant

§  Anti-Fertility Drugs, etc.

Cleansing Agents

§  Soaps

§  Synthetic detergents


Water Softener

Water Purification/Disinfection

Microwave Oven, etc.


Achievements of Indians in Science & Technology
§  Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

§  Acharya Jagadish Chandra Bose

§  Satyendra Nath Bose

§  Meghnad Saha

§  Homi Jehangir Bhabha

§  Subrahmanyan Chandrasekhar

§  A.P.J. Abdul Kalam

§  Vikram Sarabhai

§  Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya

§  Har Gobind Khorana

§  Tessy Thomas

§  C.N.R. Rao


Indigenization of Technology & Developing New Technology
§  IT & Computers

§  Space

§  Nanotechnology

§  Biotechnology

§  Robotics

§  Defence

§  Nuclear


Awareness in Different Fields
§  IT & Computers

§  Space

§  Nanotechnology

§  Biotechnology

§  Robotics

§  Defence

§  Nuclear


Issues Relating to Intellectual Property Rights
§  Need for Intellectual Property Rights

§  Types of IPR

§  IPR Regime in India

§  International Agreements Related to IPRs

§  Geographical Indicators

§  Recent Issues – Evergreening, Compuslory Licensing, Prominent Cases etc.

Environment and Biodiversity

  • Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.
What is Biodiversity?

Types of Biodiversity – Genetic, Species, Ecosystem, etc.

Importance of Biodivesirty – Ecosystem Services, Bio Resources of Economic Importance, Social Benefits etc.

Resasons for Loss of Biodiversity


§  In-situ & Ex-Situ

§  Eco-Sensitive Areas

§  Ecological Hotspots

§  National Guidelines, Legislations & Other Programmes.

§  International Agreements & Groupings


Environmental Pollution & Degradation
Types of Pollution & Pollutants

Impact of Pollution & Degradation

§  Ozone Layer Depletion and Ozone Hole

§  Greenhouse Gas Effect & Global Warming

§  Eutrophication

§  Desertification

§  Acid Rain

§  Hazardous Waste, etc.

Causes/Sources of Pollution & Degradation

Prevention & Control of Pollution & Degradation

National Environment Agencies, Legislations and Policies

International Environment Agencies & Agreements


Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)
§  What is EIA?

§  Indian Guidelines & Legislations

§  EIA Process

§  Need & Benefits of EIA

§  Shortcomings of EIA in India

§  Measures to Make EIA Effective

Disaster Manageement:

  • Disaster and Disaster Management.
Disaster Management
§  Types of Disasters

§  Management of Disasters

§  Community Level Disaster Management

§  Governement Initiatives on Disaster Management

Security Issues

  • Linkages between Development and Spread of Extremism.
  • Role of External State and Non-state Actors in creating challenges to Internal Security.
  • Challenges to Internal Security through Communication Networks, Role of Media and Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges, Basics of Cyber Security; Money-Laundering and its prevention.
  • Security Challenges and their Management in Border Areas – Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism.
  • Various Security Forces and Agencies and their Mandate.
Linkages Between Development & Spread of Extremism
§  Factors Responsible for Spread of Extremism

§  Steps that State can Taken to Reduce the Spread of Extremism due to Underdevelopment

·         Naxalism


Role of External State & Non-State Actors in Creating Challenges to Internal Security
Threats from Non-State Actors

§  J&K Separatism

§  Left Wing Extremism

§  North East Insurgency

§  Terrorism in Hinterland & Border Areas

§  Right Wing Terrorism

Reasons for Spread of Terrorism

State Sponsored Terrorism

Institutional Framework to Tackle Challenge of Internal Security

§  NIA


§  MAC






Challenges to Internal Security Through Communication Networks
§  Role of Media & Social Networking Sites in Internal Security Challenges

§  Challenges in Managing Social Media

·         Steps That can be Taken


Basics of Cyber Security
§  Cyber Security

§  Threats to Indian Cyber Security

§  Steps taken by India

§  International Cooperation on Cyber Security

§  Cyber Warfare

§  Terms Associated with Cyber Security


Money-Laundering & its Prevention
§  Process of Money Laundering

§  Impact of Money Laundering

§  Challenges to Tackle Money Laundering

§  Steps to Counter Money Laundering

§  Terms Related To Money Laundering


Security Challenges & their Management in Border Areas
§  Challenges in Managing Border Security – Coastal & Terrestrial

§  Land Boundary Disputes with Neighbours

§  India’s Policy in Border Area Security Management


Linkages of Organized Crime with Terrorism
§  Types of Organised Crime

§  Challenges in Controlling Organised Crime

§  Indian Context – Link between Organised Crime & Terrorism


Various Security Forces & Agencies & Their Mandate
§  Central Armed Police Forces

§  Central Paramilitary Forces

§  Security & Intelligence Agencies – IB. R&WA, etc.